Propaganda during Soviet times came in poster form. Some messages stirred patriotism in the fight against Adolf Hitler’s invading forces, while others slammed illiteracy and laziness.
They also bashed the greed associated with capitalism
The Russian Revolution in 1917, which overturned the tsars and led to the Soviet Union. Posters at the time showed positive images of workers and the promise of a new future.
The Socialist competition is a labour productivity competition that existed in the Soviet Union between workshops, state enterprises, brigades, and even individual workers. Including educational institutions of "Labour Reserves" took part in socialist competitions. It was assumed that this would be able to replace the competition that existed in the capitalist world. This practice existed in the Soviet Union, as well as in the countries that were part of the Eastern Bloc.
Participation in socialist competition has always been voluntary. At the same time, they were carried out in almost all sectors of the national economy, wherever people served or worked. For example, in agriculture, industry, institutions, offices, hospitals, schools, in the army.
At the same time, everywhere, with the exception of the Armed Forces, the committees of the Soviet trade unions were responsible for the management of socialist competition. Its important part has always been the so-called socialist commitments. When the production plan was the main reference point, labor collectives and individual employees were obliged to take on planned or even increased social obligations.
In most cases, the dates for summing up the results of each socialist competition in the USSR were timed to coincide with some important or memorable date. For example, the anniversary of the October Revolution, the birthday of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. The winners were awarded not only morally, but also financially. An excellent worker in socialist competition was entitled to specific goods, money or benefits to be characteristic of the existence of a socialist system. For example, it could be tickets to the Black Sea resort, the right to get a car or housing out of turn, permission to travel abroad.
Among the moral incentives were badges of honor, honorary diplomas. The portraits of the winners were necessarily hung on the Hall of Fame. Labour collectives that won the victory in socialist competition were awarded the challenge banner
The date of the appearance of socialist competitions is considered March 15, 1929, when the newspaper Pravda published an article entitled "The Agreement on Socialist Competition of Cutters of the Pipe Shop of the Krasny Vyborzhets Plant".
In particular, this text contained an appeal to aluminium cutters Mokin, Putin, Ogloblin and Kruglov, in which they called for socialist competition to reduce the cost and raise labor productivity of, specialists who were engaged in scraping, cutting red copper, and developing tram arcs. The aluminium cutters themselves pledged to cut prices by ten percent, taking measures to increase labour productivity by ten percent. They urged the rest of the workers to accept the challenge and conclude an appropriate contract.
This was the first treaty of this kind in the history of the country. As a result, today it is believed that the first socialist competitions were born at the "Krasny Vyborzhets". Based on their results, the winners were awarded the title of shock workers for communist labour.
The tenth five-year plan is the five-year plan for efficiency and quality. At the 25th Party Congress, the essence of the tenth five-year plan was expressed in a short and comprehensive formula worked out by the party - it is a five-year plan of quality and high efficiency in the name of further economic growth and people's welfare. In these conditions, new technology , scientific and technological progress are of particular importance. That is why the solution of all the issues considered should contribute to an even higher rate of development of scientific research and technical progress in Russia.
Its main task - raising the material and cultural standard of living of the people - is being solved on the basis of the dynamic and proportional development of social production, increasing its efficiency and the efficiency of capital investments. Creativity of millions gives birth to new patriotic initiatives. The initiative of the Five Years of Quality - a working guarantee was made by the advanced teams of the Moscow Electromechanical Plant named after Vladimir Ilyich.
Today, socialist emulation is closely linked with the solution of the most important tasks of the tenth five-year plan, an increase in the efficiency of production and the quality of work with a view to further economic growth and people's well-being
During the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1921, most of the Russian Scoutmasters and many Scouts fought in the ranks of the White Army against the Red Army. Between 1918 and 1920, the All-Russian Congresses of the Russian Union of the Communist Youth (Komsomol) decided to eradicate the Scout movement and create an organization of the communist type, that would take Soviet children and adolescents under its umbrella. This organization would resemble the Scout movement in its form but properly educate children with Communist teachings.
On behalf of the Soviet Council of People's Commissars, Nadezhda Krupskaya (Vladimir Lenin's wife and the People's Commissar of State for Education) was one of the main contributors to the cause of the Pioneer movement. In 1922, she wrote an essay called "Russian Union of the Communist Youth and boy-Scoutism." However, it was the remaining scoutmasters themselves who supported the Komsomol and the Red Army, who introduced the name "Pioneer" to it and convinced the Komsomol to adapt the Scout symbols and rituals.
The first Pioneer organization was founded in Soviet Russia in 1922. Later, similar organizations were founded in the countries of the Eastern Bloc and other Communist states.
The Pioneer movement was modeled in many aspects on the Scout movement. The two movements share some principles like preparedness and promotion of sports and outdoor skills. The motto Always prepared! was adapted by the pioneer movement from the Scout Motto.
A member of the movement is known as a Pioneer, with the name stemming from the pioneering activity in Scouting. A neckerchief—typically red, but sometimes light blue—is the traditional item of clothing worn by a pioneer. This tradition was adapted from the Scout uniform.
But there are some distinct differences between the two movements. Most notably, the Scout movement is independent of government control and political parties. In contrast, the Pioneer movement is controlled by the Communist Party and includes teaching of communist principles. Opponents of Communism claim that this is a form of indoctrination.
Pioneer movements have existed and still exist in countries where the Communist Party is in power as well as in some countries where the Communist Party is in opposition, if the party is large enough to support a children's organization. In countries ruled by Communist Parties, membership of the pioneer movement is officially optional. However, membership provides many benefits, so the vast majority of children typically join the movement (although at different ages). During the existence of the Soviet Union, thousands of Young Pioneer camps and Young Pioneer Palaces were built exclusively for Young Pioneers, which were free of charge, sponsored by the government and trade unions. There were many newspapers and magazines published for Young Pioneers in millions of copies.
A national pioneer organization is often named after a famous party member that is considered a suitable role model for young communists, such as Vladimir Lenin in the Soviet Union, Enver Hoxha in Albania, Georgi Dimitrov in Bulgaria, José Martí in Cuba, Ernst Thälmann in East Germany, Damdin Sükhbaatar in Mongolia, and Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam.
History of Sputnik
Sputnik, any of a series of three artificial Earth satellites, the first of whose launch by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, inaugurated the space age. Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite launched, was a 83.6-kg (184-pound) capsule. It achieved an Earth orbit with an apogee (farthest point from Earth) of 940 km (584 miles) and a perigee (nearest point) of 230 km (143 miles), circling Earth every 96 minutes and remaining in orbit until January 4, 1958, when it fell back and burned in Earth’s atmosphere. The launch of Sputnik 1 shocked many Americans, who had assumed that their country was technologically ahead of the Soviet Union, and led to the “space race” between the two countries.
Sputnik 2, launched on November 3, 1957, carried the dog Laika, the first living creature to be shot into space and orbit Earth. Laika was a stray dog found on the streets of Moscow. There were no plans to return her to Earth, and she lived only a few hours in orbit. Sputnik 3, launched on May 15, 1958, carried 12 instruments to study Earth’s upper atmosphere and space and was also the heaviest satellite to that time, weighing 1,327 kg (2,926 pounds). Sputnik 3 was originally intended to be the first satellite, but its complexity and size led the Soviets to launch the much simpler Sputnik 1 to beat the United States into space.
The Soviets officially called only three satellites Sputnik. In the West, however, Sputnik was used as a generic name for Soviet satellites. These “Sputniks” included the first probes to Venus (Venera 1) and Mars (Mars 1), as well as five missions in the Korabl-Sputnik program, which tested the crewed Vostok spacecraft before Yuri Gagarin’s flight in 1961.
History of Vostok 1
Vostok 1 (Russian: Восток, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first human spaceflight in history. The Vostok 3KA space capsule was launched from on April 12, 1961, with Soviet aboard, making him the first human to cross into outer space.
The orbital spaceflight consisted of a single orbit around Earth which skimmed the upper atmosphere at 169 kilometers (91 nautical miles) at its lowest point. The flight took 108 minutes from launch to landing. Gagarin parachuted to the ground separately from his capsule after ejecting at 7 km (23,000 ft) altitude.
The Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States, the two Cold War superpowers, began just before the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, in 1957. Both countries wanted to develop spaceflight technology quickly, particularly by launching the first successful human spaceflight. The Soviet Union secretly pursued the Vostok programme in competition with the United States' Project Mercury. Vostok launched several precursor uncrewed missions between May 1960 and March 1961, to test and develop the Vostok rocket family and space capsule. These missions had varied degrees of success, but the final two—Korabl-Sputnik 4 and Korabl-Sputnik 5—were complete successes, allowing the first crewed flight.
The Vostok 1 capsule was designed to carry a single cosmonaut. Yuri Gagarin, 27, was chosen as the prime pilot of Vostok 1, with Gherman Titov and Grigori Nelyubov as backups. These assignments were formally made on April 8, four days before the mission, but Gagarin had been a favourite among the cosmonaut candidates for at least several months.
The final decision of who would fly the mission relied heavily on the opinion of the head of cosmonaut training, Nikolai Kamanin. In an April 5 diary entry, Kamanin wrote that he was still undecided between Gagarin and Titov. "The only thing that keeps me from picking [Titov] is the need to have the stronger person for the one day flight." Kamanin was referring to the second mission, Vostok 2, compared to the relatively short single-orbit mission of Vostok 1. When Gagarin and Titov were informed of the decision during a meeting on April 9, Gagarin was very happy, and Titov was disappointed. On April 10, this meeting was re-enacted in front of television cameras, so there would be official footage of the event. This included an acceptance speech by Gagarin. As an indication of the level of secrecy involved, one of the other cosmonaut candidates, Alexei Leonov, later recalled that he did not know who was chosen for the mission until after the spaceflight had begun.
Source : Britannica online & Wikipedia